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Orla, Poland – The Memory Lasts

Orla is the birthplace of my zaida, Nachum Mendel Rabinowitz.

It is 55.5km from Bialystok in NE Poland

See translated text below

Screen Shot 2014-11-13 at 9.34.41 amAktualności

“Pamięć trwa” – obchody upamiętnienia wywózki żydów z Orli

3 listopada 2014 r. w Synagodze w Orli odbyły się obchody upamiętniające 72 rocznicę wywózki Żydów z Orli. W ramach uroczystości odbył się “Koncert Pamięci” z udziałem Mikołaja Haskina i wolontariuszy “Shomer International” z Białorusi oraz zostały przedstawione filmy Szkolnego Koła Regionalnego w Orli p.t.: “Getto w Orli” i “Tak ich pamiętamy”. Po spotkaniu w Synagodze wszyscy udali się na kirkut, gdzie odczytano 320 nazwisk Żydów, wywiezionych z naszej miejscowości.

W uroczystości wzięli udział: Sekretarz Gminy Orla – Irena Odzijewicz, Haim Dov Beliak – Rabin z Bejt Polska, Pełnomocnik Wojewody do Spraw Mniejszości Narodowych i Etnicznych – Maciej Tefelski, Wiceprezes Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Kultury Żydowskiej – Dariusz Szada-Borzyszkowski, Założyciel Stowarzyszenia “Szukamy Polski” – Tomasz Wiśniewski, Dyrektor Gminnego Ośrodka Kultury w Orli – Anna Niesteruk, Dyrektor Zespołu Szkół w Orli – Maria Tomczuk, nauczyciele i uczniowie klas gimnazjalnych oraz mieszkańcy gminy.

I translated this into English via Google Translate:

“The memory lasts” – the celebration commemorating the deportation of Jews from Orla
November 3, 2014 r. In the synagogue in Orla held the commemoration of 72 anniversary of the deportation of Jews from Orla. As part of the ceremony took place “Concert of Remembrance” starring Nicholas Haskin and volunteers “Shomer International” with Belarus and movies are shown Wheels Regional School in Orla titled “Ghetto in Orla,” and “Yes, we remember them.” After the meeting in the synagogue all went to the cemetery, where read 320 names of Jews deported from our village.
The ceremony was attended by the Secretary of the Municipality Orla – Irena Odzijewicz, Haim Dov Beliak – Rabbi of Beit Poland, Representative of the Governor for National Minorities and Ethnic – Maciej Tefelski, Vice-President of the Society of Friends of Jewish Culture – Dariusz Szada-Borzyszkowski, founder of the Association “We are looking for Polish” – Tomasz Wisniewski, Director of the Municipal Cultural Centre in Orla – Anna Niesteruk, Director of the School in Orla – Maria Tomczuk, teachers and pupils of secondary schools and the local inhabitants.
Watch video:


fot. Tomasz Wiśniewski

Created by raptorf22

Screen Shot 2014-11-13 at 9.35.03 am

The History of Orla – via Google Translate:

Orla Municipality has a rich historical past and tradition. The beginnings of Orli date back to ancient times, as evidenced by the area found objects, stone and bronze.The name of the town derives from the supposedly lived here once eagles, or on elements of water, mainly Orlanki river, near which it is situated. The earliest message archival record on Orli is derived from 1507. It concerns land grant by the King, where he now lies Orla, as well as the surrounding areas in the district of Bielsko, writer, palatine Trotsky Jasiek Iwanowiczowi. These were villages Koszel, Wierwieczki, Topczykały which were quickly populated strangers and free peasantry. Along with granting the king allowed the palatine Trotsky set up in Orla city, which took place at a later date.

From 1510r. Orla was owned by the treasurer of the Lithuanian Bohusz Bohowitynowicza, who settled in Podlasie Brzeski. Then Koszel and Wierwieczki villages were converted manor house in Trakai. A similar fate befell the village Topczykały.

In 1529. Bohusz Bohowitynowicz Orli heir bequeathed property Orlańską old daughter, Annie, who having married in 1539. Stanislaus Łęczna Orleans brought him a dowry. In 1541r. King Sigismund I issued an order saying so, Bielski subjected to raid goods Orla. The next owners were the Orli princes Olelkowicze Słuccy arms pursuit. From them, and in 1585 took good Orlański in his hands Radzivills. Then the Eagle as a settlement is of particular importance in economic and political life of the region then. Hetman Grand Duchy of Lithuania Krzysztof Radziwill erected here in 1622. Castle and Calvinist. He created a vast complex of the palace court, Italian garden, sacred objects, and the grange. An integral part of the manor was the church of St. John the Theologian castle. To date, none of the preserved castle.

Due to the huge efforts Hetman orlańskim townspeople already in 1618r. Vilnius was granted a number of rights and promised to give the Magdeburg rights, provided that the current pace of growth. Succeeded by Hetman Krzysztof Radziwill – Janusz Radziwill in 1633 confirmed the need to give the benefit of the city. In 1634. Orla obtained municipal rights. It was a period full of prosperity of the city and surrounding areas. In this then, after the worship of believers, many trade fairs were held on the established Mart, trade flourished cultural and political life. The city became a center of the Calvinist movement. In 1644r. was held here under the chairmanship of Janusz Radziwill, synod makers Polish and Lithuanian. Besides held numerous meetings Calvinists.

During the wars with Sweden in the years 1655-1657 the city suffered heavily, and the followers of Calvinism extinct. In 1726r. suspended in the congregation a new bell but the same year the church invaded the bishop of Lodz and the bell is answered. According to the church archives in the possession Calvinists to 1732. Around 1754 the church was sold by his wife Radziwill – the Jews. According to legend, the wife demanded in return Radziwill 10k. cents, which were to be paid within one hour, but the same grosikami. According to another version 2.5 thousand. cents were delivered in one night. It should be noted that the Eagle was the beginning of Jewish settlement as early as the turn of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. According to the census of 1616. There were 17 Jewish houses and wooden synagogue. In 1655r. 540 Jews lived next to the Orthodox and Catholic. In 1765. Jewish community in Orla and the surrounding villages had 1358 followers of Moses and was twice the size of the municipality of Bialystok. Good, liberal laws and privileges given to allow the Jews to the unshakable existences and peaceful life alongside people of other faiths.

During this time, Eagle was owned by the family Branickis. In 1795. as a result of the efforts of Isabella Branicka, orlańscy Jews received tax breaks. In the same year under the treaties subdivision, Podlasie coincided with Prussia. Dissection of the Republic changed your relationship and was the cause of the sharp drop in the population. In 1799r. Orla had 486 residents, including 102 Jews.

In 1807. under the Treaty of Tilsit Orla was incorporated into the so-called. Bialystok circuit. During this time, the town has a population of 1586 inhabitants in the 1102 Orthodox Jews. In 1842. was included in the Government of Grodno, then became the property of Prince Wittgenstejna- husband of Princess Radziwill. In 1874. Wittgenstejn sold lands Orlański Orli residents and the surrounding countryside on the property. Then the Eagle lost its municipal rights, and along with this there was a setback in its development. In 1897. the number of inhabitants was about 3 thousand. of which the followers of Moses was 80%. In 1921. was in the district of the province of Bialystok Bielsko. In this period of cohabitation Orthodox community, Catholic, Jewish and starozakonnej układało in Orla correctly. Attend to common schools, created political organizations, have brought social activists and party. In the interwar period, the municipality of Communist Party of Western Belarus, Belarusian Peasants ‘and Workers’ Union Jewish community formed in Orla small industry, trade and services. There were three tile factory, which was owned by a Jewish family Wajsztejnów. Place of employment in kaflarniach were several hundred people from Orla and the surrounding countryside.

In 1937. Orla was destroyed in the range of about 30% of the buildings by fires started by the Jewish inhabitant. As a result of huge losses, many families have lost their place of residence and occupation. In 1939,. Began World War II. Orleans passed by Soviet troops and German. Residents affected by the tragic events. Inside Orli and ordered the resettlement area. The Jewish population was placed in two ghettos and then completely removed from the orlańskiego landscape. In the postwar period Orla village community had about 1,100 inhabitants. Most of them were engaged in farm work, some found employment in a few factories, such as tile factory, brickyard, concrete.

Currently, Orla Municipality is located in the south-eastern part of the region of Podlasie. It borders the municipalities of: Bielsk Podlaski, Dubicze Cerkiewne, Boćki and Czyz. Distance seat of the municipality of the district ie. The city Bielsk Podlaski is 12 km. The area municipalities run routes, the national road to the border of the state, provincial road to Białowieża and numerous county and municipal roads. Rivers flow; Orlanka and proteins. The total area of the municipality is 15 968 ha of agricultural land in the 12 789 ha and 1862 ha of forests. The commune consists of 22 villages, which are home to a total of 3 214 inhabitants (as of 31.12.2010.).

Wnętrze synagogi w Orli

(fot. M. Gołownia)

      

  

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