Home » Jewish » Heritage Walk on the Lower East Side

Heritage Walk on the Lower East Side

My walking trail of Jewish Manhattan

using Oscar Israelowitz’s book, Jewish Heritage Trail of New York as my guide. With Google Maps, I was able to plan and enjoy without wasting time and energy, and so had an amazing experience.

My photos are mostly in the form of slideshows with some Wikipedia providing further info.

Some American Jewish music. More on bottom of the right hand side panel  # 1 to 11

Lower East Side

This area has the highest concentration of sites of Jewish interest on Manhattan.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Lower east side)
Lower East Side Historic District
LowerEastSideTenements.JPG
Tenement buildings on the Lower East Side
Lower Manhattan Map LES.GIF
Neighborhood location in Lower Manhattan(blue)
Location Roughly bounded by East Houston, Essex, Canal, Eldridge, South and Grand Streets, and the Bowery and East Broadway Manhattan,New York (original)
Roughly along Division, Rutgers, Madison, Henry and Grand Streets (increase)
Coordinates40°43′2″N 73°59′23″W
Architectural style Greek RevivalItalianate

The Lower East Side, sometimes abbreviated as LES, is a neighborhood in the southeastern part of the New York City borough ofManhattan. It is roughly bounded by the Bowery to the west, East Houston Street to the north, the East River to the east, and Canal Street to the south. The western boundary below Grand Street veers east off of the Bowery to approximately Essex Street.

It was traditionally an immigrant, working-class neighborhood. It has undergone rapid gentrification starting in the mid-2000s, prompting The National Trust for Historic Preservation to place the neighborhood on their list of America’s Most Endangered Places.[2][3] It has become a home to upscale boutiques and trendy dining establishments along Clinton Street’s restaurant row

Boundaries

The corner of Orchard and Rivington Streets, Lower East Side (2005)

Boundaries

The Lower East Side is bordered in the south and west by Chinatown (which extends north to roughly Grand Street), in the west by NoLIta and in the north by East Village.[4][5]

Politically it is located in New York’s 8th12th, and 14th congressional districts, theNew York State Assembly‘s 64th district, the New York State Senate‘s 26th district, and New York City Council‘s 1st and 2nd district.

Historical boundaries

Originally, the “Lower East Side” referred to the area alongside the East River from about the Manhattan Bridge and Canal Street up to14th Street, and roughly bounded on the west by Broadway. It included areas known today as East VillageAlphabet CityChinatown,BoweryLittle Italy, and NoLIta.

The exact western and southern boundaries of the neighborhood are a matter of perspective – New York natives and long-time neighborhood residents, especially the Puerto Ricanand black community, and the Jewish community, don’t have East Village in their vocabulary, and refer to it as the Lower East Side. The so-called debate about naming conventions typically only applies to the post-gentrification crowd. Most recent arrivals to the area, including new visitors and residents prefer to call the area north of Houston Street the East Village—a name not coined until around 1960.[citation needed]

Although the term today refers to the area bounded to the north by East Houston Street, parts of the East Village are still known as Loisaida, a Latino pronunciation of “Lower East Side.” Avenue C is known directly as “Loisaida” and is home to the Loisaida Festival every summer.[6]

History

Delancey farm

James Delancey‘s pre-Revolutionary farm east of post road leading from the city (Bowery) survives in the names Delancey Street and Orchard Street. On the modern map of Manhattan, the Delancey farm[7] is represented in the grid of streets from Division Street north to Houston Street.[8] In response to the pressures of a growing city, Delancey began to survey streets in the southern part of the “West Farm”[9] in the 1760s. A spacious projected Delancey Square—intended to cover the area within today’s Eldridge, Essex, Hester and Broome Streets—was eliminated when the loyalist Delancey family’s property was confiscated after the American Revolution. The city Commissioners of Forfeiture eliminated the aristocratic planned square for a grid, effacing Delancey’s vision of a New York laid out like the West End of London, and established the resolutely democratic nature of the neighborhood forever.

Character

As an immigrant neighborhood

Katz’s Deli, symbol of the neighborhood’s Jewish history, is dwarfed by modern development

One of the oldest neighborhoods of the city, the Lower East Side has long been a lower-class worker neighborhood and often a poor and ethnically diverse section of New York. As well as IrishItaliansPolesUkrainians, and other ethnic groups, it once had a sizeableGerman population and was known as Little Germany (Kleindeutschland). Today it is a predominantly Puerto Rican and Dominicancommunity, and in the process of gentrification (as documented by the portraits of its residents in the Clinton+Rivington chapter of The Corners Project.)[18]

The Lower East Side is perhaps best known as having once been a center of Jewish culture. In her 2000 book Lower East Side memories: A Jewish place in AmericaHasia Diner explains that the Lower East Side is especially remembered as a place of Jewish beginnings in contemporary, impoverished Ashkenazi American Jewish culture.[19] Vestiges of the area’s Jewish heritage exist in shops on Hester Street and Essex Street, and on Grand Street near Allen. There is still an Orthodox Jewish community with yeshivaday schools and a mikvah. A few Judaica shops can be found along Essex Street and a few Jewish scribes and variety stores. Some kosher delis and bakeries as well as a few “kosher style” delis, including the famous Katz’s Deli, are located in the neighborhood. Downtown Second Avenue on the Lower East Side was the home to many Yiddish theatre productions in the Yiddish Theater Districtduring the early part of the 20th century, and Second Avenue came to be known as ‘Yiddish Broadway’, though most of the theaters are gone. Songwriter Irving Berlin, actor John Garfield, and singer Eddie Cantor grew up here. More recently, it has been settled by immigrants, primarily from Latin America.

In what is now the East Village, the earlier population of Poles and Ukrainians has been largely supplanted with newer immigrants, and the arrival of large numbers of Japanesepeople over the last fifteen years or so has led to the proliferation of Japanese restaurants and specialty food markets. There is also a notable population of Bangladeshis and other immigrants from Muslim countries, many of whom are congregants of the small Madina Masjid (Mosque), located on First Avenue and 11th Street.

The neighborhood also presents many historic synagogues, such as the Bialystoker Synagogue,[20] Beth Hamedrash Hagadol, the Eldridge Street Synagogue,[21] Kehila Kedosha Janina (the only Greek synagogue in the Western Hemisphere),[22] the Angel Orensanz Center (the fourth oldest synagogue building in the United States), and various smaller synagogues along East Broadway. Another landmark, the First Roumanian-American congregation (the Rivington Street synagogue) partially collapsed in 2006, and was subsequently demolished. In addition, there is a major Hare Krishna temple and several Buddhist houses of worship.

Incoming Chinese people have also made their mark on the Lower East Side in recent decades. The part of the neighborhood south of Delancey Street and west of Allen Streethas in large measure become part of Chinatown, and Grand Street is one of the major business and shopping streets of Chinatown. Also contained within the neighborhood are strips of lighting and restaurant supply shops on the Bowery.

As a Jewish neighborhood

While the Lower East Side has seen a series of immigrant communities pass through, American Jews relate to the neighborhood in a particularly strong manner, much asChinatown in San Francisco holds a special place in the imagination of Chinese Americans, and Astoria in the hearts of Greek Americans. In the late twentieth century, the strong pull of the Lower East Side on the imagination of American Jews led to the preservation of a number of buildings associated with the Jewish immigrant community.[23][24][25]

Landmarks of the Jewish neighborhood[edit]

Meseritz Synagogue

Synagogues[edit]

Stop 48:Oldest Jewish Cemetery

45-57 James St

First Cemetery

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Stop 49: Site of Rabbi Isaac Elchanan’s Theological Seminary

47 East Broadway

Establishe in 1886

Named after Rabbi Isaac Elchanan spektor, a prominent scholar from Kovno.

Forerunner of The Yeshiva University

 

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The area around the address.

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 Stop 50: Saint Barbara Greek Orthodox Church

27 Forsyth Street

Originally a synagogue, Congregation Mishkan Israel Suwalki

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Stop 51: Eldridge Street Synagogue

14 Eldridge Street

Built in 1886

Congregation Kahal Adas Jesurun Anshei Lubz

Yossele Rosenblatt was once the chazan at this shul.

A young Eddie Cantor sang in the choir.

Museum and active synagogue

EldridgeEldridge 1  Lower East Side Shuls

 

 

Outside

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Inside

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 Stop 52: Home of Eddie Cantor

19 Eldridge Street opposite the synagogue.

He took acting and voice lessons at the Educational Alliance in East Broadway.

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Stop 53: Manhattan Railway Company Electrical Substation (Former)

100 Division Street NW corner Allen Street

This facility served the Second Avenue El – elevated train which ran from Brooklyn Bridge to the Bronx.

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Stop 54: Pike Street Shul (Former)

15 Pike Street

Congregation Sons of Israel Kalvarier bulit 1903. One of the great synagogues in the Lower East Side

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Stop 55: Chèvre Mishkan Anshe Zetel

135 Henry Street

A mini synagogue – shteeble

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Stop 56: Saint Teresa’s RC Church

16-18 Rutgers Street

First Presbyterian Church in NY in 1841. In 1863 as the area became Irish, it was bought by the Roman Catholic Church.

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 Stop 57: Former Synagogue

156 Henry Street

Now a Buddist Association

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Stop 58: Site of Yeshiva Rabbi Jacob Joseph

203 Henry Street

Rabbi Jacob Joseph was appointed “Chief Rabbi of the City of New York” in 1899. This was met with resistance and only lasted several months.

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Stop 59: Former Synagogue

209 Madison Street

Previuosly Congregation Etz Chaim Anshe Volozin, closed in 1989

209 Madison St

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Stop 60: Henry Street Settlement

263-267 Henry Street

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Henry Street Settlement

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Henry Street Settlement
and Neighborhood Playhouse
Henry Street Settlement 263-267 Henry Street.jpg
(2011)
Location 263-267 Henry St., and
466 Grand Street
ManhattanNew York City
Coordinates 40°42′50″N 73°59′7″WCoordinates40°42′50″N 73°59′7″W
Area 1 acre (0.40 ha)
Built 1827[2]
Architect 267: Buchman & Fox
Architectural style FederalGreek RevivalColonial Revival

The Henry Street Settlement is a not-for-profit social service agency in the Lower East Side neighborhood of ManhattanNew York City that provides social services, arts programs and health care services to New Yorkers of all ages. It was founded in 1893 by Progressive reformer and nurse Lillian Wald.

The Settlement serves about 50,000 people each year. Clients include low-income individuals and families, survivors of domestic violence, youngsters ages 2 through 21, individuals with mental and physical health challenges, senior citizens, and arts and culture enthusiasts who attend performances, classes and exhibitions at Henry Street’s Abrons Arts Center.

The Settlement’s administrative offices are still located in its original (c. 1832) federal row houses at 263, 265 and 267 Henry Street in Manhattan. Services are offered at 17 program sites throughout the area, many of them located in buildings operated by the New York City Housing Authority.

The Settlement’s buildings at 263, 265 and 267 Henry Street were designated New York City landmarks in 1966,[4] and these buildings, along with the Neighborhood Playhouse building at 466 Grand Street, were collectively designated a National Historic Landmark in 1989.[3][5][6]

History

In 1892, Lillian Wald, a 25-year-old nurse then enrolled in the Women’s Medical College, volunteered to teach a class on home health care for immigrant women at the Louis Down-Town Sabbath and Daily School on the Lower East Side. One day, she was approached by a young girl who kept repeating “mommy … baby … blood”. Wald gathered some sheets from her bed-making lesson and followed the child to her home, a cramped two-room tenement apartment. Inside, she found the child’s mother who had recently given birth and in need of health care. The doctor tending to her had left because she could not afford to pay him.[7] This was Wald’s first experience with poverty; she called the episode her “baptism by fire” and dedicated herself to bringing nursing care, and eventually education and access to the arts, to the immigrant poor on Manhattan’s Lower East Side. The next year she founded the Nurses’ Settlement, which later changed its name to the Henry Street Settlement.[4]

Two years later, in 1895, Jacob Schiff, a banker and philanthropist purchased the Federal style townhouse at 265 Henry Street for the new organization to use. The building was expanded upwards with an additional story to provide more space, and Schiff donated the building to the Settlement in 1903.[4] The year before, the Settlement had added new facilities, including a gymnasium at 299, 301 and 303 Henry Street.[8]

A street-level view of 267 Henry Street

The organization expanded again in 1906, when Morris Loeb bought the building at 267 Henry Street for it to use. This Greek Revival townhouse was purchased from the Hebrew Technical School for Girls, which had previously employed the architectural firm of Buchman & Fox in 1900 to redo the facade in Colonial Revival style.[4]

In 1915, the Neighborhood Playhouse, one of the first “Little Theatres”, was created by the sisters Alice and Irene Lewisohn at the corner of Grand and Pitt Streets, offering classical drama for the people of the area. The theatre still operates, as the Harry De Jur Playhouse.[8] In 1927 the Henry Street Music School began operation.[8]

The Settlement began leasing the townhouse at 263 Henry Street, on the other side of its original building, in 1938, using it for classrooms and residences, and in 1949 it purchased the building, which was originally built in the Federal style but had been extensively altered.[4]This combining of the three townhouse – 263, 265 and 267 – had the consequence of preserving part of the 1820s streetscape amid what later became a crowded tenement district. The block of Henry Street between Montgomery Street and Grand Street, which also includes St. Augustine’s Church, gives an impression of uptown Manhattan as it would have looked in the 1820s and 1830s. #263 Henry Street was restored in 1989 and #265 in 1992.[4]

Today, Henry Street is known for its pioneering efforts in social service and health care delivery. Its innovations included the establishment of one of New York City’s first off-street playgrounds (1902); funding the first public school nurse (1902); starting the Visiting Nurse Service, which became independent as the Visiting Nurse Service of New York in 1944; opening one of the nation’s first mental health clinics (1946), one of the first transitional housing facilities for the homeless (1972), the first Naturally Occurring Retirement Community (NORC) in public housing (1994) and the city’s first Safe Haven shelter for homeless women (2007).

Lillian Wald

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lillian Wald
Lillian Wald - William Valentine Schevill.jpg

Portrait of Lillian Wald by William Valentine Schevill, National Portrait Gallery inWashington, D.C.
Born March 10, 1867
Cincinnati, Ohio
Died September 1, 1940 (aged 73)
Westport, Connecticut
Alma mater New York Hospital Training School for Nurses
Occupation Nurse, humanitarian, activist
Known for Founding the Henry Street Settlement; nursing pioneer, advocacy for the poor

Lillian D. Wald (March 10, 1867 – September 1, 1940) was an American nurse, humanitarian and author. She was known for contributions to human rights and was the founder of American community nursing.[1] She founded the Henry Street Settlement and was an early advocate for nursing in schools.

After growing up in Ohio and New York, Wald became a nurse. She briefly attended medical school and began to teach community health classes. After founding the Henry Street Settlement, she became an activist for the rights of women and minorities. She campaigned for suffrage and was a supporter of racial integration. She was involved in the founding of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

Wald died in 1940 at the age of 73.

Early life and education

Wald was born into a German-Jewish middle-class family in Cincinnati, Ohio; her father was an optical dealer. In 1878, she moved with her family to Rochester, New York. She attended Miss Cruttenden’s English-French Boarding and Day School for Young Ladies. She applied to Vassar College at the age of 16, but the school thought her too young. In 1889, she attended New York Hospital’s School of Nursing. She graduated from the New York Hospital Training School for Nurses in 1891, then took courses at the Woman’s Medical College.[2]

A young Lillian Wald in nurse uniform

Stop 61: Saint Augustine’s Chapel

290 Henry Street

Built between 1827 and 1829 in the Federal style. The fieldstone design is similar to Bialystoker Synagogue, originally a Methodist Church (Stop 86)

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Stop 62: East Side Torah Center

313 Henry Street

Established in 1890

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Stop 63: East Side Mikveh – Ritualarium

313 East Broadway

Built in 1904 as the Arnold Toynbee Hall, which served as a settlement house. Later the Young Men’s Benevolent Association. Also as a mikveh.

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Stop 64: Amalgamated Dwellings

Grand, Broome, Willett & Lewis Streets

Also known as Sidney Hillman Houses. Built in 1930 under the auspices of the  Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America.

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Cooperative Village

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

View of Grand Street showing 26 years of cooperative development: Amalgamated Dwellings (1930) in the foreground with two of the Hillman Housing buildings (1947-50) behind it. One of the East River Housing towers (1953-56) in the background.

The closed courtyard of Amalgamated Dwellings

Hillman Housing buildings on Grand Street as seen from the East River towers. Amalgamated Dwellings is seen between the second and the third tower

One of the towers of Seward Park Housing

A view southwest through the Seward Park towers

Towers of the East River Housing Corporation

Cooperative Village is a community of housing cooperatives on the Lower East Side of ManhattanNew York City. The cooperatives are centered on Grand Street in an area south of the entrance ramp to the Williamsburg Bridge and west of FDR Drive. Combined, the four cooperatives have 4,500 apartments in twelve buildings.

The cooperatives were sponsored, organized and built by trade unions, the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America and International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union, as well as the United Housing Foundation, a development organization set up by the unions in 1951.

The cooperatives followed strict Rochdale Principles, with one vote per member, irrespective of the nominal value of his shares. Resale of shares was restricted; members moving out of the apartments had to sell their shares back to the cooperative at the buying price, minus a flip tax. After the original financing structures governing the apartments were phased out, beginning in 1986, the shareholders of each cooperative decided in separate votes in 1997 and 2000, to abandon the limited equity rules and free the resale of shares, in some cases increasing the value of apartments fivefold. To keep the maintenance fees low for original tenants, many of them retirees, a high flip tax is charged, up to 17.5% of the gross sales price for “first sales” and up to 8.5% for “second sales”. In a similar instance, the shareholders at the Penn South sister cooperative in the Chelsea section of Manhattan voted to continue operating under limited equity rules.

Amalgamated Dwellings

The Amalgamated Dwellings, one of the oldest housing cooperatives in the United States, was the second cooperative sponsored by the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, after the successful Amalgamated Cooperative Apartments in the Bronx. The six-story Art Deco building with 236 apartments was designed by the architects Springsteen & Goldhammer and was completed in 1930 at the site of a former printing plant. The building covered one city block, with a protected garden in the center. The design was intended to provide direct sunlight to all rooms, something that was missing from the typical Manhattan tenements. The cooperative also had a library, an auditorium, a nursery, and a gym. The apartments were priced at $500 a room, with monthly maintenance fees, including repayment of the mortgage, at $12.50 a room.

Hillman Housing Corporation

The Hillman Housing Corporation was the third cooperative sponsored by the Amalgamated Clothing Workers. The cooperative, located on Grand Street between Kazan Plaza and Lewis Street on two sides of the Amalgamated Dwellings buildings, consists of three twelve-story buildings with 807 units. A garden links Hillman Houses to each other and to the Amalgamated Dwellings.

Construction was begun in November 1947 and was completed by 1950 at a total cost of $9,100,000. The design is attributed to Springsteen & Goldhammer, with Herman J. Jessor responsible for much of the work. Four slum blocks with sixty-five tenement buildings were torn down to clear the site for the development. As banks were unwilling to provide loans to the cooperative, financing was provided by the Mutual Life Insurance Company.

The cooperative is named after Sidney Hillman, founder and first president of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Each of the three Hillman houses is named after a cooperative or labor leader:

East River Housing Corporation

The East River Housing Corporation was one of the first developments of the newly formed United Housing Foundation and was financially sponsored by the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union. A mortgage loan was insured by the Federal Housing and Home Finance Agency. Construction work was begun in November 1953 and completed in 1956. The cooperative has 1,672 apartments in four 20- and 21-story towers on an open lot facing the East River.

The project was designed by George W. Springsteen and his new associate, Herman J. Jessor, who would go on to design many other UHF projects, including Co-op City. The buildings followed the towers in a park concept introduced to the U.S. in the late 1930s by the Castle Village towers in Hudson Heights in upper Manhattan. The Castle Village layout, with cross-shaped towers placed diagonally to the cardinal directions optimized to give each apartment a maximum view, was used by most post-war socialand affordable housing in New York City. Springsteen’s derivation, used already at Hillman Houses, connects three of these towers side by side. The East River towers also share the reinforced concrete construction and red brick facade with Castle Village. At the time of construction the 21 story towers were the highest reinforced concrete buildings in the U.S.

Each of the four East River houses is named after a labor leader:

Seward Park Housing Corporation

Seward Park Housing Corporation is located in the triangle between Grand Street and East Broadway, and abuts the New York Citypublic park that shares its name. The buildings, designed by Herman Jessor,[1] share the general design of the East River Houses, with four towers facing the Lower East Side. Each of the twelve semi-attached towers has seven or eight apartments on each floor around a central stairwell and corridor.

Construction work was begun in 1957[citation needed] and finished in 1959[2] at a total cost of $23,258,392.75.[citation needed]A mortgage loan from Bowery Savings Bank and pension funds of the United Hatters, Cap & Millinery Workers, International Union as well as Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers of America covered $18 million, with about 25% of the costs paid as equity by the 1,728 cooperative members.[citation needed]

The buildings are known for their murals by Hugo Gellert in a socialist realist style.[citation needed] Each of the murals depicts a “progressive” hero with an associated quote:

Williamsburg Bridge

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Williamsburg Bridge
Above Williamsburg Bridge crop.jpg
Carries 8 lanes of roadway,
2 tracks of the NYCS J NYCS M NYCS Z trains of the New York City Subway,
pedestrians, and bicycles
Crosses East River
Locale Manhattan and Brooklyn, in New York City
Maintained by New York City Department of Transportation
Architect Henry Hornbostel
Designer Leffert L. Buck
Design Suspension bridge and truss causeways
Total length 7,308 feet (2,227 m)
Width 118 feet (36 m)
Longest span 1,600 feet (490 m)
Vertical clearance 10 feet 6 inches (3.2 m) (inner roadways only)
Clearance below 135 feet (41 m) at mean high water
Opened December 19, 1903; 110 years ago
Toll Free
Daily traffic 106,783 (2008)[1]
Connects:
Manhattan at Delancey St. with the Williamsburgneighborhood of Brooklyn
Wpdms ISS002E6333 williamsburg bridge.jpg
Coordinates 40.713°N 73.97°WCoordinates40.713°N 73.97°W

The Williamsburg Bridge is a suspension bridge in New York City across the East River connecting the Lower East Side of Manhattan at Delancey Street with the Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn at Broadway near the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway (Interstate 278). It once carried New York State Route 27A and was planned to carry Interstate 78, though these plans were aborted by the cancellation of the Lower Manhattan Expressway and Bushwick Expressway.

This is one of four toll-free crossings between Manhattan and Brooklyn or Queens.

History

File:WilliamsburgBridge1903opening.ogg

Historical film clip of a procession during the opening of the Williamsburg Bridge in 1903.

Construction on the bridge, the second to cross this river, began in 1896, with Leffert L. Buck as chief engineer, Henry Hornbostel as architect and Holton D. Robinson as assistant engineer, and the bridge opened on December 19, 1903 at a cost of $24,200,000.[2][3] At the time it was constructed, the Williamsburg Bridge set the record for the longest suspension bridge span on Earth. The record fell in 1924, when the Bear Mountain Bridge was completed.

It is an unconventional structure, as suspension bridges go; though the main span hangs from cables in the usual manner, the side spans leading to the approaches are supported by trusswork, drawing no support from the cables above.[4] The main span of the bridge is 1,600 feet (490 m) long. The entire bridge is 7,308 feet (2,227 m) long between cable anchor terminals, and the deck is 118 feet (36 m) wide. The height at the center of the bridge is 135 feet (41 m) and each tower is 335 feet (102 m), measurements being taken from the river’s surface at high-water mark.

This bridge and the Manhattan Bridge are the only suspension bridges in New York City that still carry both automobile and rail traffic. In addition to this two-track rail line, connecting the New York City Subway‘s BMT Nassau Street Lineand BMT Jamaica Line, there were once two sets of trolley tracks.

The Brooklyn landing is between Grand Street and Broadway, which both had ferries at the time. The five ferry routes operated from these landings withered and went out of business by 1908.[5]

Had the Lower Manhattan Expressway been built, the Williamsburg Bridge would have been designated Interstate 78.

The bridge has been under reconstruction since the 1980s, largely to repair damage caused by decades of deferred maintenance. The bridge was completely shut down to motor vehicle traffic and subway trains on April 12, 1988 after inspectors discovered severe corrosion in a floor beam.[6] The cast iron stairway on the Manhattan side, and the steep ramp from Driggs Avenue on the Williamsburg side to the footwalks, were replaced to allow handicapped access in the 1990s. Since the new bike path opened, the bridge has become the most heavily bicycled span in North America [7]

A celebration was held on June 22, 2003, to mark the 100th anniversary of the bridge and the area surrounding Continental Army Plaza was filled with musical performers, exhibits on the history of the bridge, and street vendors. Dignitaries marched across the bridge carrying the 45-star American flag used in a game of capture the flag played by workers after the placement of the final cable in June 1902. A truck-sized birthday cake was specially made for the event by Domino Sugar, which had a factory on the East River waterfront near the bridge.[8] The bridge was designated as a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Civil Engineers in 2009.[4]

In 1999, Gandhi Engineering designed, engineered, and installed the pedestrian bridge along the Williamsburg Bridge.

 

East River

 

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the East River in New York City. For other uses, see East River (disambiguation).
East River
Tidal strait
East River and UN.jpg
East River and the headquarters of the United Nations inManhattan, as seen from Roosevelt Island.
Country United States
State New York
Municipality New York City
Tributaries
 – left Newtown CreekFlushing River
 – right Westchester CreekBronx River,
Bronx KillHarlem River
Source Long Island Sound
 – coordinates 40.8039900°N 73.8251343°W
Mouth Upper New York Bay
 – coordinates 40.696355°N 74.016609°W
Length 16 mi (26 km)
The East River is shown in red on this satellite photo of New York City.
Wikimedia Commons: East River

The East River is a salt water tidal strait in New York City. The waterway, which is actually not a river despite its name, connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end. It separates Long Island – including the boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn – from the Bronx on the North American mainland, and the island of Manhattan. Because of its connection to Long Island Sound, it was once also known as the Sound River.[1] The tidal strait changes its flow direction frequently.

 More to follow …………

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