Druskininkai is well known for its spas!
Jacques Lipchitz Sculpture Park
Jacques Lipchitz, 1935, photograph Rogi André (Rozsa Klein)
|Birth name||Chaim Jacob Lipschitz|
|Born||22 August 1891
|Died||16 May 1973 (aged 81)
|Training||École des Beaux-Arts|
Life and career
Jacques Lipchitz was born Chaim Jacob Lipschitz, in a Litvak family, son of a building contractor in Druskininkai, Lithuania, then within the Russian Empire. At first, under the influence of his father, he studied engineering, but soon after, supported by his mother he moved to Paris (1909) to study at the École des Beaux-Arts and the Académie Julian.
It was there, in the artistic communities of Montmartre and Montparnasse, that he joined a group of artists that included Juan Gris and Pablo Picasso as well as where his friend, Amedeo Modigliani, painted Jacques and Berthe Lipchitz.
Living in this environment, Lipchitz soon began to create Cubist sculpture. In 1912 he exhibited at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and the Salon d’Automne with his first solo show held at Léonce Rosenberg’s Galerie L’Effort Moderne in Paris in 1920. In 1922 he was commissioned by the Barnes Foundation in Merion, Pennsylvania to execute five bas-reliefs.
With artistic innovation at its height, in the 1920s he experimented with abstract forms he called transparent sculptures. Later he developed a more dynamic style, which he applied with telling effect to bronze compositions of figures and animals.
With the German occupation of France during World War II, and the deportation of Jews to the Nazi death camps, Jacques Lipchitz had to flee France. With the assistance of the American journalist Varian Fry in Marseille, he escaped the Nazi regime and went to the United States. There, he eventually settled in Hastings-on-Hudson, New York.
He was one of 250 sculptors who exhibited in the Third Sculpture International Exhibition held at the Philadelphia Museum of Art in the summer of 1949. He has been identified among seventy of those sculptors in a photograph Life magazine published that was taken at the exhibition. In 1954 a Lipchitz retrospective traveled from The Museum of Modern Art in New York to the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis and The Cleveland Museum of Art. In 1959, his series of small bronzes To the Limit of the Possible was shown at Fine Arts Associates in New York.
Beginning in 1963 he returned to Europe for several months of each year and worked in Pietrasanta, Italy. He developed a close friendship with fellow sculptor, Fiore de Henriquez. In 1972 his autobiography, co-authored with H. Harvard Arnason, was published on the occasion of an exhibition of his sculpture at The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. Jacques Lipchitz died in Capri, Italy. His body was flown to Jerusalemfor burial.
- “Sailor with Guitar” – 1914
- “Bather” – (1916–17)
- “Woman with Book” – (1918) at Carleton College
- “Bather, bronze” – 1923-25
- “Reclining Nude with Guitar” – (1928), a prime example of Cubism
- “Dancer with Veil” – (1928)
- “Dancer” – (1929)
- “The Song of the Vowels” – (Le Chant des Voyelles), – (1931) cast bronze sculptures at Cornell University, Princeton University, UCLA, Stanford University, Kykuit Estate Gardens, Paris
- “Bull and Condor” – (1932)
- “Bust of a Woman” – (1932)
- “David and Goliath” – (1933)
- “Embracing Figures” – (1941)
- “Prometheus Strangling the Vulture” – (1944)
- “Rescue II“- (1947)
- “Mother and Child” – (1949) at the Honolulu Museum of Art
- “Bellerophon Taming Pegasus: Large Version” – (1966-1977), begun in 1966 and arrived at Columbia Law School in pieces for assembly in 1977
- “Peace on Earth” – (1967–1969)
- “Government of the People” – (1976)
Jacques Lipchitz, 1920, Portrait ofJean Cocteau
Mother and Child, 1930, Honolulu Museum of Art
Jacques and Berthe Lipchitz, byAmedeo Modigliani, 1916
DruskininkaiFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Coat of arms
Druskininkai ([ˈd̪rʊs̪ʲkʲɪn̪ʲɪŋkɐɪ] ( ), see also other names) is a spa town on the Neman River in southern Lithuania, close to the borders of Belarus and Poland. The city of Druskininkai has a population of 18,233 (2001 Census) and dates back as a spa resort to the 19th century.
The name comes from the Lithuanian root “druska” which means salt. Versions of the name in other languages include:Belarusian: Дру́скенікі/Druskeniki, Latvian: Druskininki, Polish: Druskieniki, Russian: Друскининкай, Yiddish:דרוסקאניק/Druskanik.
The town is located at the Ratnyčia River estuary to the Nemunas River and is surrounded by a natural forest reserve. The town is situated in a picturesque landscape with rivers, lakes, hills and forests.
According to some sources the site of present-day Druskininkai was inhabited by local Yotvingian tribes in the early Middle Ages. In the 13th century the area was conquered by the Lithuanians. A small castle was built in the area as a part of the defence system against the Teutonic Order. In 1308 the castle was conquered by the Teutonic Knights and destroyed, causing a depopulation of the area.
The first written mention of Druskininkai dates back to 1636. The name of the town suggests that the local population collected the precious mineral. In the late 18th century it was believed that minerals found in the waters of Druskininkai area produced health benefits and their usage in the medical treatment of asthma and other ailments began. In the early 19th century Ignacy Fonberger, a professor at the University of Vilnius, analyzed the chemical composition of Druskininkai’s waters and showed that they contain large amounts of Calcium, Sodium, Potassium, Iodine, Bromine, Ironand Magnesium. He also promoted the town as a holiday resort for the population of Vilnius.
In 1837 czar Nicholas I of Russia bestowed upon Druskininkai the status of a spa, and construction of pensions and hostels started. To ease communication to the spa, a ferry service on the Nemunas was started.
The spa became popular in many parts of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In 1862 the Warsaw – Saint Petersburg Railway was opened and Druskininkai’s railway station was placed only 19 kilometres (12 miles) from the city. By the beginning of the 20th century the Druskininkai spa became one of the most popular resorts in the area, with tourists and convalescents coming from all over the world. It also became a place of summer residence for the middle class of Vilnius, Warsaw and Moscow.
After World War I the town became part of Poland (see Polish-Lithuanian conflict) and soon became one of the Polish resorts. Its popularity was increased by the patronage ofJózef Piłsudski, who spent most of his summer holidays there and promoted the development of the area. Soon most of the resort was bought up by the state-owned Bank Gospodarstwa Krajowego and the construction of luxurious villas and pensions started. In 1934 a railway link with the Porzeczetrain station was opened and the town became more accessible to the general public.
After Poland was invaded in September 1939, the town was briefly incorporated into the Belarusian SSR. However a month later, in October 1939, Stalin transferred Druskininkai to Lithuania which in turn was annexed in August of the following year and incorporated into the Soviet Union. In 1951, Druskininkai began to grow rapidly again and several huge sanatoriums and spa hospitals were opened. The city became a famous resort, attracting around 400,000 visitors per year from all over the Soviet Union.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union was followed by economic difficulties faced byLithuania and some of its resorts, due to the lack of many of their former tourists. In 2001unemployment reached 29% in Druskininkai. Recently Druskininkai began a revival.Sanatoriums, spas and the city’s infrastructure have been renovated by both the local government and privately owned businesses.
Despite damage inflicted during World War I, the city features houses and villas reflecting all periods of its development – Russian, Polish and Lithuanian.
The first water park in Lithuania was opened in Druskininkai on 26 December 2006.
The Snow Arena (construction completed in August 2011) is one of the biggest indoor skiing slopes in Europe, with a year-round indoor slope length of 460 metres, width up to 63 metres, and a height difference of 65.65 metres. In addition there is a seasonal outdoor route of 640 metres. In alpine ski complex Snow Arena works school of skiing and snowboarding DruSkiSchool. We are working according Austrian methodics – one of the modern and safe learning programs. Druskischool is offering skiing school services for everyone, who wants to learn or improve skiing technique.
There are a number of art and historical museums and galleries in the city. Many cultural events take place, most of them during spring, summer and fall.
An annual poetry event, “Druskininkai poetic fall”, began in 1985 and attracts authors from all over the world. In 2001, Grūtas parkwas opened near Druskininkai, exposing sculptures and other materials of the Soviet era.
There is also an annual International Arts Festival ‘Druskininku vasara su M.K.Ciurlioniu’ (eng. The summer in Druskininkai withMikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis).